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The Rise and Fall of Communism
Communism is an utopic political system which became widely popular in the 20th century. Take this quiz and learn more about it.
The work of two modern philosophers, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, was published on 21 February 1848. It explained the principles of Communism and laid the purposes and program of the Communist League. The significance of this political treatise was so great, that Marx and Engles were expelled from Belgium when it was published. What was its name?
Proletariats From All Countries, Unite!
The Communist Manifesto
The Cummunist Agenda
According to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, the capitalistic system, based on personal ownership, had to be replaced by the communist society, where everything is communally owned. This was the course to overthrow capitalism, that they suggested.
It would happen inevitably and there was no reason to intervene in this natural process
Bloody terroristic acts
Marx and Engles were the first to openly criticise the idea of personal property.
Marxist theories led to the foundation of The Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party. Although there were several other social democratic parties in Europe at this time, this was the only one to maintain the principles of Communism. One branch of it was headed by Vladimir Lenin.
The faction of the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party, led by Lenin, succeeded in overthrowing the regime of Alexander Kerensky by revolution. When did it take place?
The second stage of The Russian Revolution led to to the creation of the Soviet Union and took place in November.
After the end of World War II many countries were overtaken by communist influence. Most of them were in Eastern European, but not all. Mao Zedong came to power in China and established the People's Republic of China in this year.
Fidel Castro and Ernesto Che Guevara are among the most famous revolutionaries. Che Gevara was one of Castro's guerrillas in his army, the "26th of July Movement". Although this army was small in numbers and not well trained, Fidel Castro took control over Cuba's government. What was the name of the leader of Cuba before Fidel Castro took control?
Carlos Manuel de Cespedes
Raul Castro Ruz
The ideas of communism became so widely popular that by the 80s, almost a quarter of the world was under communist rule.
After the death of Vladimir Lenin there were two possible successors. Joseph Stalin (Iosif Vissarionovich Jughashvili), who had been general secretary of the Soviet Communist Party since 1922, was one possibility. The other one was Leon Trotsky. What happened to Trotsky after Stalin became leader of the Soviet Union?
He was exiled and later released
He was exiled and later killed
He became general secretary of the Soviet Communist Party
He was killed after a trial
One of the most famous quotes of Stalin is "The death of one man is a tragedy. The death of millions is a statistic." But when it comes to the victims of his regime, is not just a statistic. Even though determining the exact number of Stalin's victims is virtually impossible, we know about millions of people, either shot or exiled to labor camps, in the years of his rule. This was the name of the administration which ran these camps.
After the death of Stalin in 1953, Nikita Khrushchev came to power. The Cold War reached its peak under his rule, when Khrushchev ordered the installation of short and middle ranged ballistic missiles in Cuba. Although the conflict was settled peacefully, the world was under the threat of nuclear war for 38 long days. There was no winner in this crisis, because just as the Soviets had to remove their missiles from Cuba, the United States had to dismantle their missile installations in this country, which lies on two continents.
Geogry Markov, a Bulgarian dissident, is probably one of the most famous political victims of Communism in Eastern Europe. Even though he defected from Bulgaria, his life remained in danger. The Bulgarian secret police, with the help of KGB, found located and assassinated him in London using one of the strangest weapons of the Cold War; a small platinum pellet with two holes drilled in it, filled with poison, was fired in his calf muscle by an umbrella. What kind of poison was in the pellet?
He was the communist dictator of Romania from 1965 to 1989. On 25 December 1989 he and his wife were executed by a firing squad. They were charged with various crimes, such as unjust gathering of wealth at the expense of the people and even genocide.
Josip Broz Tito
When this great leader came to power in 1985, it marked the beginning of the end of the Soviet Union. He tried to reform the Soviet Union by introducing "glasnost" and "perestroika". He abandoned the Brezhnev Doctrine and let the other Communist countries settle their internal affairs alone. Because he literally ended the Cold War, he was awarded a Nobel Peace Prize on 15 October 1990.
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